At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes.
Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect.
A solution of chloral hydrate in ethanol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn.
More reputable uses of chloral hydrate include its use as a clearing agent for chitin and fibers and as a key ingredient in Hoyer's mounting medium, which is used to prepare permanent or semi-permanent microscope slides of small organisms, histological sections, and chromosome squashes.
These substances were often highly addictive, dangerous, and sometimes deadly.
Dependent users may get withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness and insomnia to convulsions and death.
A pleasant-smelling, colorless and highly flammable liquid, ether can be vaporized into a gas that numbs pain but leaves patients conscious.
In 1842, Georgia physician Crawford Williamson Long became the first doctor to use ether as a general anesthetic during surgery, when he used it to remove a tumor from the neck of his patient James M. In 1846, after viewing Morton's ether demonstration in Boston, the physician Oliver Wendell Holmes suggested the word "anesthesia" to describe the process of making a patient unconscious in order to free them of surgical pain; he based it on the Greek word "anaisthesis," which means insensibility or loss of sensation.
Cocaine was banned in the US in 1920, but by then the drug already had a well-established market.
Image Source Bayer Pharmaceutical Products invented heroin (diacetylmorphine) and started selling it from 1898.