The French palaeontologist Marcellin Boule, concluded walked stooped forward which fitted in with the then new current thinking of Darwins evolutionary theory of the origin of man (these new assumptions were made post Darwinism 1859).
They allow us to go back in time and to sample accumulation, air temperature and air chemistry from another time.
The team were travelling across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to study snow accumulation.
Through analysis of ice cores, scientists learn about glacial-interglacial cycles, changing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and climate stability over the last 10,000 years. This picture shows a traversing field camp from December 2010.
Scientists estimate that there are hundreds of millions of tons of methane gas locked away beneath the Arctic permafrost, which extends from the mainland into the seabed of the relatively shallow sea of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf.
One of the greatest fears is that with the disappearance of the Arctic sea ice in summer, and rapidly rising temperatures across the entire Arctic region, which are already melting the Siberian permafrost, the trapped methane could be suddenly released into the atmosphere leading to rapid and severe climate change.